blob: 74d64a30f5007387d09081235e68215c45e421e1 [file] [log] [blame]
.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only
.. Copyright (C) 2022 Red Hat, Inc.
.. note::
- ``BPF_MAP_TYPE_LPM_TRIE`` was introduced in kernel version 4.11
``BPF_MAP_TYPE_LPM_TRIE`` provides a longest prefix match algorithm that
can be used to match IP addresses to a stored set of prefixes.
Internally, data is stored in an unbalanced trie of nodes that uses
``prefixlen,data`` pairs as its keys. The ``data`` is interpreted in
network byte order, i.e. big endian, so ``data[0]`` stores the most
significant byte.
LPM tries may be created with a maximum prefix length that is a multiple
of 8, in the range from 8 to 2048. The key used for lookup and update
operations is a ``struct bpf_lpm_trie_key``, extended by
``max_prefixlen/8`` bytes.
- For IPv4 addresses the data length is 4 bytes
- For IPv6 addresses the data length is 16 bytes
The value type stored in the LPM trie can be any user defined type.
.. note::
When creating a map of type ``BPF_MAP_TYPE_LPM_TRIE`` you must set the
Kernel BPF
.. code-block:: c
void *bpf_map_lookup_elem(struct bpf_map *map, const void *key)
The longest prefix entry for a given data value can be found using the
``bpf_map_lookup_elem()`` helper. This helper returns a pointer to the
value associated with the longest matching ``key``, or ``NULL`` if no
entry was found.
The ``key`` should have ``prefixlen`` set to ``max_prefixlen`` when
performing longest prefix lookups. For example, when searching for the
longest prefix match for an IPv4 address, ``prefixlen`` should be set to
.. code-block:: c
long bpf_map_update_elem(struct bpf_map *map, const void *key, const void *value, u64 flags)
Prefix entries can be added or updated using the ``bpf_map_update_elem()``
helper. This helper replaces existing elements atomically.
``bpf_map_update_elem()`` returns ``0`` on success, or negative error in
case of failure.
.. note::
The flags parameter must be one of BPF_ANY, BPF_NOEXIST or BPF_EXIST,
but the value is ignored, giving BPF_ANY semantics.
.. code-block:: c
long bpf_map_delete_elem(struct bpf_map *map, const void *key)
Prefix entries can be deleted using the ``bpf_map_delete_elem()``
helper. This helper will return 0 on success, or negative error in case
of failure.
Access from userspace uses libbpf APIs with the same names as above, with
the map identified by ``fd``.
.. code-block:: c
int bpf_map_get_next_key (int fd, const void *cur_key, void *next_key)
A userspace program can iterate through the entries in an LPM trie using
libbpf's ``bpf_map_get_next_key()`` function. The first key can be
fetched by calling ``bpf_map_get_next_key()`` with ``cur_key`` set to
``NULL``. Subsequent calls will fetch the next key that follows the
current key. ``bpf_map_get_next_key()`` returns ``0`` on success,
``-ENOENT`` if ``cur_key`` is the last key in the trie, or negative
error in case of failure.
``bpf_map_get_next_key()`` will iterate through the LPM trie elements
from leftmost leaf first. This means that iteration will return more
specific keys before less specific ones.
Please see ``tools/testing/selftests/bpf/test_lpm_map.c`` for examples
of LPM trie usage from userspace. The code snippets below demonstrate
API usage.
Kernel BPF
The following BPF code snippet shows how to declare a new LPM trie for IPv4
address prefixes:
.. code-block:: c
#include <linux/bpf.h>
#include <bpf/bpf_helpers.h>
struct ipv4_lpm_key {
__u32 prefixlen;
__u32 data;
struct {
__uint(type, BPF_MAP_TYPE_LPM_TRIE);
__type(key, struct ipv4_lpm_key);
__type(value, __u32);
__uint(map_flags, BPF_F_NO_PREALLOC);
__uint(max_entries, 255);
} ipv4_lpm_map SEC(".maps");
The following BPF code snippet shows how to lookup by IPv4 address:
.. code-block:: c
void *lookup(__u32 ipaddr)
struct ipv4_lpm_key key = {
.prefixlen = 32,
.data = ipaddr
return bpf_map_lookup_elem(&ipv4_lpm_map, &key);
The following snippet shows how to insert an IPv4 prefix entry into an
LPM trie:
.. code-block:: c
int add_prefix_entry(int lpm_fd, __u32 addr, __u32 prefixlen, struct value *value)
struct ipv4_lpm_key ipv4_key = {
.prefixlen = prefixlen,
.data = addr
return bpf_map_update_elem(lpm_fd, &ipv4_key, value, BPF_ANY);
The following snippet shows a userspace program walking through the entries
of an LPM trie:
.. code-block:: c
#include <bpf/libbpf.h>
#include <bpf/bpf.h>
void iterate_lpm_trie(int map_fd)
struct ipv4_lpm_key *cur_key = NULL;
struct ipv4_lpm_key next_key;
struct value value;
int err;
for (;;) {
err = bpf_map_get_next_key(map_fd, cur_key, &next_key);
if (err)
bpf_map_lookup_elem(map_fd, &next_key, &value);
/* Use key and value here */
cur_key = &next_key;