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.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
Internal ABI between the kernel and HYP
This file documents the interaction between the Linux kernel and the
hypervisor layer when running Linux as a hypervisor (for example
KVM). It doesn't cover the interaction of the kernel with the
hypervisor when running as a guest (under Xen, KVM or any other
hypervisor), or any hypervisor-specific interaction when the kernel is
used as a host.
Note: KVM/arm has been removed from the kernel. The API described
here is still valid though, as it allows the kernel to kexec when
booted at HYP. It can also be used by a hypervisor other than KVM
if necessary.
On arm and arm64 (without VHE), the kernel doesn't run in hypervisor
mode, but still needs to interact with it, allowing a built-in
hypervisor to be either installed or torn down.
In order to achieve this, the kernel must be booted at HYP (arm) or
EL2 (arm64), allowing it to install a set of stubs before dropping to
SVC/EL1. These stubs are accessible by using a 'hvc #0' instruction,
and only act on individual CPUs.
Unless specified otherwise, any built-in hypervisor must implement
these functions (see arch/arm{,64}/include/asm/virt.h):
* ::
r1/x1 = vectors
Set HVBAR/VBAR_EL2 to 'vectors' to enable a hypervisor. 'vectors'
must be a physical address, and respect the alignment requirements
of the architecture. Only implemented by the initial stubs, not by
Linux hypervisors.
* ::
Turn HYP/EL2 MMU off, and reset HVBAR/VBAR_EL2 to the initials
stubs' exception vector value. This effectively disables an existing
* ::
r1/x1 = restart address
x2 = x0's value when entering the next payload (arm64)
x3 = x1's value when entering the next payload (arm64)
x4 = x2's value when entering the next payload (arm64)
Mask all exceptions, disable the MMU, clear I+D bits, move the arguments
into place (arm64 only), and jump to the restart address while at HYP/EL2.
This hypercall is not expected to return to its caller.
* ::
x0 = HVC_VHE_RESTART (arm64 only)
Attempt to upgrade the kernel's exception level from EL1 to EL2 by enabling
the VHE mode. This is conditioned by the CPU supporting VHE, the EL2 MMU
being off, and VHE not being disabled by any other means (command line
option, for example).
Any other value of r0/x0 triggers a hypervisor-specific handling,
which is not documented here.
The return value of a stub hypercall is held by r0/x0, and is 0 on
success, and HVC_STUB_ERR on error. A stub hypercall is allowed to
clobber any of the caller-saved registers (x0-x18 on arm64, r0-r3 and
ip on arm). It is thus recommended to use a function call to perform
the hypercall.