blob: 8c0845c4eee708f9b404c6e0342356f2915b93a1 [file] [log] [blame]
Writing s390 channel device drivers
:Author: Cornelia Huck
This document describes the interfaces available for device drivers that
drive s390 based channel attached I/O devices. This includes interfaces
for interaction with the hardware and interfaces for interacting with
the common driver core. Those interfaces are provided by the s390 common
I/O layer.
The document assumes a familarity with the technical terms associated
with the s390 channel I/O architecture. For a description of this
architecture, please refer to the "z/Architecture: Principles of
Operation", IBM publication no. SA22-7832.
While most I/O devices on a s390 system are typically driven through the
channel I/O mechanism described here, there are various other methods
(like the diag interface). These are out of the scope of this document.
The s390 common I/O layer also provides access to some devices that are
not strictly considered I/O devices. They are considered here as well,
although they are not the focus of this document.
Some additional information can also be found in the kernel source under
The css bus
The css bus contains the subchannels available on the system. They fall
into several categories:
* Standard I/O subchannels, for use by the system. They have a child
device on the ccw bus and are described below.
* I/O subchannels bound to the vfio-ccw driver. See
* Message subchannels. No Linux driver currently exists.
* CHSC subchannels (at most one). The chsc subchannel driver can be used
to send asynchronous chsc commands.
* eADM subchannels. Used for talking to storage class memory.
The ccw bus
The ccw bus typically contains the majority of devices available to a
s390 system. Named after the channel command word (ccw), the basic
command structure used to address its devices, the ccw bus contains
so-called channel attached devices. They are addressed via I/O
subchannels, visible on the css bus. A device driver for
channel-attached devices, however, will never interact with the
subchannel directly, but only via the I/O device on the ccw bus, the ccw
I/O functions for channel-attached devices
Some hardware structures have been translated into C structures for use
by the common I/O layer and device drivers. For more information on the
hardware structures represented here, please consult the Principles of
.. kernel-doc:: arch/s390/include/asm/cio.h
ccw devices
Devices that want to initiate channel I/O need to attach to the ccw bus.
Interaction with the driver core is done via the common I/O layer, which
provides the abstractions of ccw devices and ccw device drivers.
The functions that initiate or terminate channel I/O all act upon a ccw
device structure. Device drivers must not bypass those functions or
strange side effects may happen.
.. kernel-doc:: arch/s390/include/asm/ccwdev.h
.. kernel-doc:: drivers/s390/cio/device.c
.. kernel-doc:: drivers/s390/cio/device_ops.c
The channel-measurement facility
The channel-measurement facility provides a means to collect measurement
data which is made available by the channel subsystem for each channel
attached device.
.. kernel-doc:: arch/s390/include/uapi/asm/cmb.h
.. kernel-doc:: drivers/s390/cio/cmf.c
The ccwgroup bus
The ccwgroup bus only contains artificial devices, created by the user.
Many networking devices (e.g. qeth) are in fact composed of several ccw
devices (like read, write and data channel for qeth). The ccwgroup bus
provides a mechanism to create a meta-device which contains those ccw
devices as slave devices and can be associated with the netdevice.
ccw group devices
.. kernel-doc:: arch/s390/include/asm/ccwgroup.h
.. kernel-doc:: drivers/s390/cio/ccwgroup.c
Generic interfaces
The following section contains interfaces in use not only by drivers
dealing with ccw devices, but drivers for various other s390 hardware
as well.
Adapter interrupts
The common I/O layer provides helper functions for dealing with adapter
interrupts and interrupt vectors.
.. kernel-doc:: drivers/s390/cio/airq.c